Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by amyloid plaques and neuronal death, is the main cause of dementia worldwide. Using natural therapies has always been a great concern for AD. Herein, aloin, as a natural anthraquinone, was applied to examine its protective and therapeutic effects on a rat model of AD. Fifty six Wistar, male rats were randomly assigned to 7 groups (n= 8 rats/group), including control group with no Aβ42 injections, group 2 with Aβ42 injection into rats’ hippocampus, group 3 with injection of phosphate buffer saline, as Aβ buffer, into rats’ hippocampus, group 4 and 5 that received aloin at 50 and 100 µg/kg in a treatment mode, respectively, after being injected with Aβ42, and group 6 that received aloin (100 µg/kg) in a protective mode before Aβ injection. Behavioral, biochemical, and histological parameters were evaluated in all groups. Alzheimer’s-induced group showed impairment in lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme level, long-term memory, along with loss of amyloid plaque formation. Treatment with aloin improved the lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme activity, number of amyloid plaques, and memory function. Protection with aloin also demonstrated similar improvements against AD. Hence, aloin has shown capability of improving the deficiency of both memory and antioxidant enzyme activity as well as brain plaque formation associated with AD.